Fault vs. No-Fault Insurance Laws by State in the United States

At-fault and no-fault insurance laws dictate how car insurance claims are handled after an accident. In the United States, there are three types of insurance laws related to fault in auto accidents:

  • At-Fault-Based Systems: In an at-fault (or full tort) system, the driver who is determined to be responsible for the accident must compensate the other parties for damages and injuries. Fault insurance laws typically involves determining fault through investigation and sometimes litigation. There are 38 at-fault states in the United States, plus the District of Columbia.
  • No-Fault Systems: In a no-fault (or limited tort) system, each party’s insurance company pays for their own medical expenses and other losses, regardless of who caused the accident. No-fault insurance laws aims to reduce the time and costs associated with resolving car accidents. There are 12 no-fault states in the United States, although 3 of those are choice no-fault (i.e., Kentucky, New Jersey, Pennsylvania).
  • Choice No-Fault Systems: Some states have implemented a hybrid system known as choice no-fault. In these states, drivers can choose to operate their policy under the no-fault system or the traditional at-fault-based system. There are 3 choice no-fault states in the United States. If no option is selected, the default is at-fault in Pennsylvania and no-fault in Kentucky and New Jersey.

Whether you live in an at-fault or no-fault state significantly affects your ability to make a personal injury claim. In at-fault states, you may pursue compensation by filing a claim against the at-fault driver’s insurance or by suing the driver directly for expenses that exceed your own insurance coverage. This can potentially provide a higher payout but often requires proving the other driver’s liability.

In no-fault states, your ability to sue for personal injury is generally restricted; you can typically only step outside the no-fault system if the injuries meet a certain severity threshold, such as significant medical expenses or permanent disability. This streamlined approach can expedite claims and reduce the need for legal battles, but it may also limit the compensation available for severe injuries.

Fault Insurance Laws: Fault vs. No-Fault States

Below, you will find a list of all 50 states and the District of Columbia, along with their corresponding fault insurance laws and systems. Further, you will find a link substantiating each fault insurance law.

Fault vs. No-Fault Insurance Laws by State

State Fault or No-Fault State Personal Injury Protection (PIP) Minimum Insurance Requirements
Alabama At-Fault Not Available $25,000 bodily injury/person/accident, $50,000 combined bodily injury/accident, $25,000 property damage/accident or a combined single limit of $75,000/accident. This is known as a 25/50/25 policy, and will be shown as such below for other states.
Alaska At-Fault Not Available 50/100/25
Arizona At-Fault Not Available 25/50/15
Arkansas At-Fault Optional ($5,000 per person) 25/50/25
California At-Fault Not Available 15/30/5
Colorado At-Fault Not Available 25/50/15
Connecticut At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25 + Uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage (UM/UIM) of 25/50
Delaware At-Fault Required ($15,000 per person/$30,000 for all persons) 25/50/10 + PIP
District of Columbia At-Fault Optional ($50,000 per person) 25/50/10 + UM/UIM of 25/50/5
Florida No-Fault Required ($10,000) $10,000 in PIP and $10,000 in property damage
Georgia At-Fault Optional 25/50/25
Hawaii No-Fault Required ($10,000 per person) 20/40/10 + PIP
Idaho At-Fault Not Available 25/50/15
Illinois At-Fault Optional ($1,500 per person) 25/50/20 + UM of 25/50 (but not UIM)
Indiana At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25
Iowa At-Fault Not Available 20/40/15
Kansas No-Fault Required ($4,500 per person for medical costs; $900 per month for 1 year for disability and loss of income; $25 per day for in-home services; $2,000 for funeral, burial, or cremation costs; $4,500 for rehabilitation; survivor benefits of $900 per month for 1 year for disability and loss of income and $25 per day for in-home services) 25/50/25 + PIP + UM/UIM of 25/50
Kentucky Choice No-Fault Required ($10,000 per person) 25/50/25 or a single limit $60,000 policy + PIP
Louisiana At-Fault Not Available 15/30/25
Maine At-Fault Not Available 50/100/25 or a combined single limit $125,000 policy + Medical Payments (MedPay) of $2,000 + UM/UIM of 50/100
Maryland At-Fault Optional ($2,500 per person) 30/60/15 +UM/UIM of 30/60/15
Massachusetts No-Fault Required ($8,000 per person) 20/40/5 + PIP + UM of 20/40 (but not UIM)
Michigan No-Fault Required ($250,000 per accident; $50,000 for some Medicaid enrollees) 50/100/10 + PIP + $1,000,000 in Property Protection Coverage (PPI)
Minnesota No-Fault Required ($40,000 consisting of $20,000 for medical expenses and $20,000 for loss of income) 30/60/10 + PIP + UM/UIM of 25/50
Mississippi At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25
Missouri At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25 + UM of 25/50 (but not UIM)
Montana At-Fault Not Available 25/50/20
Nebraska At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25 + UM/UIM of 25/50
Nevada At-Fault Not Available 25/50/20
New Hampshire At-Fault Not Available Auto insurance is not required, though you have to proof of financial responsibility to drive without coverage. If you choose to have coverage, 25/50/25 + MedPay of $1,000 + UM/UIM of 25/50/25
New Jersey Choice No-Fault Required ($15,000 per person; Up to $250,000 for severe/permanent injury) 25/50/25 + PIP + UM/UIM of 25/50/25
New Mexico At-Fault Not Available 25/50/10
New York No-Fault Required ($50,000 per person, $2,000/month for up to three years for lost income, $25/day for one year for necessary expenses, $2,000 death benefit) 25/50/10; 50/100/10 (if death) + PIP + UM of 25/50 (but not UIM)
North Carolina At-Fault Not Available 30/60/25 (increasing to 50/100/50 for policies issued in 2025) + UM of 30/50/25 (but not UIM)
North Dakota No-Fault Required ($30,000 per person) 25/50/25 + PIP + UM/UIM of 25/50
Ohio At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25
Oklahoma At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25
Oregon At-Fault Required ($15,000 per person) 25/50/20 + PIP + UM of 25/50 (but not UIM)
Pennsylvania Choice No-Fault Medical Benefits Required ($5,000) 15/30/5
Rhode Island At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25
South Carolina At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25 + UM of 25/50/25 (but not UIM)
South Dakota At-Fault Optional 25/50/25 + UM/UIM of 25/50
Tennessee At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25
Texas At-Fault Optional ($2,500 per person) 30/60/25
Utah No-Fault Required ($3,000 per person) 25/65/15 (increasing to 30/65/25 for policies issued in 2025) + PIP
Vermont At-Fault Not Available 25/50/10 + UM/UIM of 50/100/10
Virginia At-Fault Optional ($2,000 per person) Auto insurance is not required, though you have to pay an uninsured motor vehicle fee of $500 to drive without coverage. If you choose to have coverage, 30/60/20 (increasing to 50/100/25 for policies issued in 2025) + UM/UIM of 25/50/20
Washington At-Fault Optional ($10,000 per accident) 25/50/10
West Virginia At-Fault Not Available 25/50/25 + UM of 25/50 (but not UIM)
Wisconsin At-Fault Not Available 25/50/10 + UM of 25/50 (but not UIM)
Wyoming At-Fault Not Available 25/50/20


Why Do No-Fault States Require Personal Injury Protection (PIP)?

No-fault states require personal injury protections (PIP) to streamline the claim process and ensure that accident victims receive immediate financial assistance for medical expenses and other related costs. By mandating PIP, these states aim to reduce the reliance on the court system to resolve accident claims, thereby decreasing legal fees, court costs, and the duration of disputes.

This coverage helps to manage out-of-pocket expenses quickly without the need for proving fault, which can often be a contentious and protracted process. Additionally, PIP coverage fosters a more efficient insurance system by minimizing the administrative delays associated with determining liability. Hence, it plays a crucial role in providing prompt and equitable compensation, promoting the overall well-being and financial stability of all parties involved in an accident.

States With No-Fault Car Insurance

In the 12 no-fault insurance law states, Personal Injury Protection (PIP) coverage is mandatory to ensure that each party’s medical costs and related expenses are covered regardless of fault. The following states operate under no-fault insurance systems (with * denoting it is a choice state):

  1. Florida
  2. Hawaii
  3. Kansas
  4. Kentucky*
  5. Massachusetts
  6. Michigan
  7. Minnesota
  8. New Jersey*
  9. New York
  10. North Dakota
  11. Pennsylvania*
  12. Utah

States With Choice No-Fault Car Insurance

The 3 choice no-fault insurance law states are:

  1. Kentucky
  2. New Jersey
  3. Pennsylvania

States With At-Fault Car Insurance

The District of Columbia and 38 remaining states have at-fault insurance laws:

  1. Alabama
  2. Alaska
  3. Arizona
  4. Arkansas
  5. California
  6. Colorado
  7. Connecticut
  8. Delaware
  9. Georgia
  10. Idaho
  11. Illinois
  12. Indiana
  13. Iowa
  14. Louisiana
  15. Maine
  16. Maryland
  17. Mississippi
  18. Missouri
  19. Montana
  20. Nebraska
  21. Nevada
  22. New Hampshire
  23. New Mexico
  24. North Carolina
  25. Ohio
  26. Oklahoma
  27. Oregon
  28. Rhode Island
  29. South Carolina
  30. South Dakota
  31. Tennessee
  32. Texas
  33. Vermont
  34. Virginia
  35. Washington
  36. West Virginia
  37. Wisconsin
  38. Wyoming

Closing Thoughts on Fault Insurance Laws

Navigating the complexities of fault and no-fault insurance laws is essential for understanding your rights and obligations as a driver. Both systems have their unique advantages and challenges. Fault states typically allow for larger compensations through the legal process but require proving liability, which can be time-consuming and contentious. Conversely, no-fault states prioritize swift payouts for medical expenses through mandatory PIP coverage, aiming to reduce litigation and expedite recovery. However, this can sometimes limit compensation for more severe injuries unless certain conditions are met.

Given these variations, it’s important for drivers to be well-informed about the specific regulations in their state and to choose insurance coverage that best fits their needs and risk tolerance. Consulting with an insurance professional can provide additional insights and help tailor a policy that offers adequate protection. Ultimately, whether in a fault or no-fault state, understanding the nuances of your auto insurance system can substantially impact your financial and legal outcomes following an accident.

No Win No Fee for Personal Injury Case - Fault vs. No-Fault Insurance Laws by State in the United States

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